As per ASER (Annual Survey of Education Report) conducted by Pratham Education Foundation, the standard of Primary Education in India is on decline. Survey shows that students of Class 5 are not able to read and write the books of Class 2 and Class 7 students are not able to read and write the books of class 5.
For the sole purpose child development and to control the child labour the government of India amended the constitution by 86th amendment act to insert in it Article 21A and made right to education a fundamental right and backed it legally. Simultaneously with Article 45A and Article 51A made it the responsibility of both state and society to provide basic education to children.
OBJECTIVES OF RIGHT TO EDUCATION :
- Increasing the literacy rate.
- 100% enrolment and retention.
- To control the dropout rate in secondary and Sr. secondary level.
SOME PROVISIONS OF RIGHT TO EDUCATION:
- It is fundamental and legal right of every child between 6 to 14 years of age to get primary and upper primary education till 8th class.
- No tution fee and Capitation fee.
- No physical or corporal punishment and no harassment for any child.
- For quality of education, Teacher-student ratio to be 1:30 in primary and 1:35 in upper primary schools.
- Availability of basic amenities including separate toilets for boys and girls, appropriate classroom infrastructure, blackboard and electricity.
- Provision of age appropriate classes and child- friendly pedagogy.
- Special infrastructure for disabled and provision of ramps and buses.
- Teachers should be RCI Certified (Rehabilitation Council of India).
- Both private and public schools to provide minimum 25% seats on the basis of socio-economic deprivation.
10. Implementation of school/distance scheme. i.e.
In highly dense populated area 1 school/km
In moderately populated area 1 school/3 km
In low populated area 1 school/5 km.
11. No detention till class 8 and no marks only grading system on the
basis of continuous comprehensive evaluation system.
12. Schools should paint all the provisions of RTE Act on the walls of
the school for awareness of the act.
CHALLENGES IN RTE IMPLEMENTATION:
- Education is concurrent subject where central govt designs the policy but implementation is done by state governments. This leads to communication and implementation gap.
- Migration, especially from rural to urban leads to increase in dropout rate as children don’t get admission in mid sessions.
- Child labour is very high.
- Lack of interest among children as they are more inclined toward economic activities.
- Teachers are not skilled, teacher absenteeism is high and child friendly pedagogy is not there.
- Over-burden of education on children leads to loss in interest.
- Focus on practical knowledge and extra-curricular activities is less and more emphasis is given to theoretical knowledge.
- Child marriage, domestic work and financial strains.
- Poor infrastructure, high dropout rate and poor implementation of mid-day meal schemes.
Recent causes behind RTE failure are income-gap and domination of private education centres. It is right time that India should work on no detention policy as it results in high dropout rates. India should introduce vocational education as part of RTE and encourage the families and societies at grass root level to promote and encourage the education of their children.