Tropical Cyclones are LOW PRESSURE ZONES or depressions mainly occurring during transition of season from summer to winter like in the month of September, October & November. They are heat engines and there major source of energy is LATENT HEAT.
- They are mainly formed in between 5 to 30 degree N&S latitudes.
- They are absent in 0-5 degree N&S latitudes because of absence of Coriolis Force.
- Sometimes they move from tropical to extra- tropical region.
- They go Anti-Clockwise.
- They are always destructive.
- They increase water level in river.
- Eye of the Cyclone is cool and calm.
CONDITIONS REQUIRED FOR THERE FORMATION:
- Minimum Temperature of sea water should be 27 degree Celsius.(Water specific heat is high so they are formed in transition season)
- Water body should be shallow & small, which is why Bay of Bengal has more cyclones than Arabian Sea.
- Water should be sediment free.
- High Coriolis force and pre-existing turbulence in atmosphere.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TROPICAL AND TEMPERATE CYCLONES:
- Tropical Cyclones die when they approach land as evaporation is source of latent heat. This is not the case with Temperate Cyclones.
- They do not have definite path as they move with local winds or sometimes with easterlies. Temperate Cyclones have definitive path.
- Wind speed of Tropical Cyclones is very high ranging from 80km/h to 160km/h. Temperate Cyclones have less speed as compared to tropical.
- Tropical Cyclones are destructive in nature which is not true in case of temperate cyclones.
TROPICAL CYCLONE PRONE AREAS:
TROPICAL CYCLONES ARE CALLED WITH DIFFERENT NAMES IN DIFFERENT REGION:
- CARRIBEAN SEA HURRICANE
- INDIAN OCEAN CYCLONES
- AUSTRALIA WILLI WILLI
- CHINA TYPHOON
- JAPAN TYPHOON
MORPHOLOGY OF TROPICAL CYCLONE:
WARMING UP OF SEAS DUE TO GLOBAL WARMING AND INCREASE IN COASTAL TEMPERATURE DUE TO INDUSTRIALISATION HAS INCREASED THE FREQUENCY AND STRENGTH OF TROPICAL CYCLONES IN RECENT YEARS.