Envionment

Envionment

Keeping in view that people from all backgrounds appear for UPSC. We have developed Material that will build your foundation from scratch. No Matter whether you remember your NCERT´s or not, we have took out the best from them and added on the expertise from Standard Books and developed the best yet Foundation Course which is updated every Quarter to incorporate Current Affairs. All this free of cost for reading and at minimum cost for downloading.

Chapter 1: Environment

Environment is the natural component in which biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) factors interact with each other. These interactions shape the habitat and ecosystem of an organism...

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Chapter 2: Ecosystem

An ecosystem can be visualised as a functional unit of nature, where living organisms [producers, consumers, and decomposers] interact among themselves and also with the surrounding physical environment...

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Chapter 3: Ecology - Principles and Organizations

The term ecology was derived from two Greek words ‘Oikos’ meaning home and ‘logos’ meaning study. Ecology is the branch of biology concerned with the relations of organisms to one another (energy flow and mineral cycling) and to their physical surroundings (environment)...

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Chapter 4: Ecological Pyramids

The pyramidal representation of trophic levels of different organisms based on their ecological position [producer to final consumer] is called as an ecological pyramid...

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Chapter 5: Eutrophication-Algal Bloom

Eutrophic water body: it is a a body of water rich in nutrients and so supporting a dense plant population, the decomposition of which kills animal life by depriving it of oxygen...

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Chapter 6: Mangrove and Estuarine Ecosystems

An estuary is a place where a river or a stream opens into the sea (mouth of the river). It is a partially enclosed coastal area of brackish water (salinity varies between 0-35 ppt) with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea...

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Chapter 7: Pollution

Pollution may be defined as addition of undesirable material into the environment as a result of human activities. The agents which cause environmental pollution are called pollutants...

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Chapter: 8 Prevention and Control of air Pollution

Poor ventilation due to faulty design of buildings leads to pollution of the confined space. Paints, carpets, furniture, etc. in rooms may give out volatile organic compounds (VOCs)...

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Chapter 9: Government Initiatives

Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has been executing a nationwide programme of ambient air quality monitoring known as National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP)...

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Chapter 10: Ozone Hole – Ozone Depletion

Polar vortex and ozone depletion are two distinct but related phenomena. Ozone gas is continuously formed by the action of UV rays on molecular oxygen in the stratosphere. Also, ozone is simultaneously degraded into molecular oxygen in the stratosphere...

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Chapter 11: Ocean Acidification

Ocean acidification has been called the “evil twin of global warming” and “the other CO2 problem”. Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth´s oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere...

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Chapter 12: Effects of Water Pollution

Domestic and hospital sewage contain many undesirable pathogenic microorganisms, and its disposal into a water without proper treatment may cause outbreak of serious diseases, such as, amoebiasis dysentery, typhoid, jaundice, cholera, etc...

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Chapter 13: Radioactive Pollution

Accidents in nuclear power plants and nuclear waste. Nuclear weapon testing and explosion (Nuclear fallout). The fall Out contains radioactive substances such as strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, etc...

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Chapter 14: Biodiversity of India

India is a recognized as one of the mega-diverse countries, rich in biodiversity and associated traditional knowledge. India has 23.39% of its geographical area under forest and tree cover. With just 2.4% of the land area, India accounts for nearly 7% of the recorded species even while supporting almost 18% of human population...

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Chapter 15: Invasive Alien Species

Purposely or accidentally, people often bring non-native species into new areas where the species have few or no natural predators to keep their populations in check...

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Chapter 16: Insectivorous Plants

These plants are specialized in trapping insects and are popularly known as insectivorous plants. They are very different from normal plants in their mode of nutrition. They, however, never prey upon humans or large animals...

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Chapter 17: Major Global Environmental Issues

Increased human activity, urbanization, industrialization have led to rapid deterioration of the environment. This has severely affected the life supporting system...

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Chapter 18: National Environmental Legislation

Our constitution, originally, did not contain any direct provision regarding the protection of natural environment. However, after the United Nations Conference on Human Environment, held in Stockholm in 1972, Indian constitution was amended to include protection of the environment as a constitutional mandate...

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Chapter 19: Acts for Protecting Coastal Environment and Wetlands

The coastal stretches of seas, bays, estuaries, creeks, rivers and back waters which are influenced by tidal action are declared "Coastal Regulation Zone" (CRZ) in 1991...

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Chapter: 18 Organic Farming

Organic farming is a type of agriculture or farming which avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, and livestock feed additives...

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Chapter: 19 Crop Classifications

Tropical: Crops grow well in warm & hot climate. E.g. Rice, sugarcane, Jowar etc.Temperate: Crops grow well in cool climate. E.g. Wheat, Oats, Gram, Potato etc...

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