Foundation Courses

Geography

Geography

Keeping in view that people from all backgrounds appear for UPSC. We have developed Material that will build your foundation from scratch. No Matter whether you remember your NCERT´s or not, we have took out the best from them and added on the expertise from Standard Books and developed the best yet Foundation Course which is updated every Quarter to incorporate Current Affairs. All this free of cost for reading and at minimum cost for downloading.

Chapter 1: Earth in our Universe

When the universe began, around 10 billion years ago, Earth wasn’t around. Neither was our solar system. The Milky Way, was formed in a perfectly ordinary place in the universe in the normal way. Solar systems and the planets within them form from the spinning disks of matter. Slowly, the grains of matter come together to form clumps, then boulders, and eventually balls big enough to have their own gravity coalesce. At this point, these clumped matter are called planetesimals, which just means a small, irregular-shaped body formed by colliding matter. ..

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Chapter 2: Interior of Earth

The shape of Earth approximates that of an oblate spheroid, a sphere flattened along the axis from pole to pole such that there is a bulge around the equator. This bulge results from the rotation of Earth, and causes the diameter at the equator to be 43 kilometres (27 mi) larger than the pole-to-pole diameter. ..

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Chapter 3: Origin of Current Continents and Oceans Basins

The theory of plate tectonics is nowadays more or less universally accepted by geologists and I have mentioned the basic idea briefly at the beginning of this class. The basic thought is, that instead of being permanent fixtures of the earth’s surface, the continents and ocean basins undergo continuous change. Both are parts of lithospheric plates that move against each other, and in the process new crust is created at mid-oceanic ridges (spreading centres), and old crust is consumed at convergent plate boundaries (subduction zones)...

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Chapter 4 Earthquakes

An earthquake is an intense shaking of Earth’s surface. The shaking is caused by movements in Earth’s outermost layer.Although the Earth looks like a pretty solid place from the surface, it’s actually extremely active just below the surface. The Earth is made of four basic layers: a solid crust, a hot, nearly solid mantle, a liquid outer core and a solid inner core...

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Chapter 5 Volcanoes

A volcano is an opening on the surface of a planet or moon that allows material warmer than its surroundings to escape from its interior. When this material escapes, it causes an eruption. An eruption can be explosive, sending material high into the sky. Or it can be calmer, with gentle flows of material.These volcanic areas usually form mountains built from the many layers of rock, ash or other material that collect around them...

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Chapter 6: Landforms of Erath-Mountains, Plateaus and Plains

The formation and deformation of landforms on the surface of the earth are a continuous process which is due to the continuous influence of external and internal forces. The internal and external forces causing stresses and chemical action on earth materials and bringing about changes in the configuration of the surface of the earth are known as geomorphic processes...

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Chapter 7th: Denudation of Earth

The process of wearing away the Earth causes a general lowering and levelling out of the surface. It is known as Denudation and is carried out in four phases:..

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Chapter 8: Rocks and Minerals

Minerals are naturally-occurring, solid substances composed of chemical elements. This means that minerals, ranging from salt to rubies, are made up from the elements that appear on a periodic table. They are inorganic, not living or made up of living things. Minerals form a crystalline structure which gives rocks their ‘rough’ texture...

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Chapter 9th: Drainage System and Landforms

Streams have a major role in geology. Streams sculpt and shape the earth’s surface by eroding, transporting, and depositing sediment. By eroding sediment from uplifted areas and creating landforms made of deposited sediment in lower areas, streams shape the earth’s surface more than glaciers do, more than waves on a beach do, and far more than wind does...

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Chapter 10: Karst Processes and Landforms

Limestone and chalk sedimentary rocks of organic origin derived from the accumulation of corals and shells in the sea. In its pure state, limestone is made up of calcite or calcium carbonate, but where magnesium is also present it is termed dolomite which, with carbon dioxide from the air, forms a weak acid...

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Chapter 11: Coastal Processes and Landforms

A coast or the coastal zone is a dynamic region where land is sculpted and shaped by wave action and currents. Barring the effects of tectonic uplift and sea level change, erosion is the dominate geomorphic process acting on coasts. Coastal sediments are subject to multiple episodes of erosion, transportation and deposition, though a net seaward transport takes place on a global scale...

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Chapter 12: Soils

Soil is a natural resource and deeply affects every other part of the ecosystem. Soil holds nutrient and water for plants and animals; water is filtered and cleansed as it flow through soils; and soils affect the chemistry of water and the amount of water that returns to the atmosphere to form rain...

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Chapter 13: Aeolian Processes and Landforms

There is a certain definite pattern to the location of the world’s deserts. Almost all the deserts are confined within the 15o to 30o parallels of latitude north and south of the equator. They lie the trade wind belt on the western parts of the continents where Trade winds are off-shore. They are bathed by cold currents which product a ‘desiccating affect’ so that moisture is not easily condensed in to precipitation. Such deserts are tropical hot deserts or ‘Trade Wind deserts’...

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Chapter 14: Glacial Processes and Landforms

Glaciers are a mass of ice moving under its own weight. They are commonly found in the snow-fields.We know that the landmass on the earth is not entirely the same as we see around. Some areas are covered by thick green forests, some with dry hot deserts, some with permanent ice covers etc. ..

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Chapter 15: Atmosphere Composition and Structure

The atmosphere contains many gases, most in small amounts, including some pollutants and greenhouse gases.  The most abundant gas in the atmosphere is nitrogen, with oxygen second.  Argon, an inert gas, is the third most abundant gas in the atmosphere.The atmosphere is concentrated at the earth’s surface and rapidly thins as you move upward, blending with space at roughly 100 miles above sea level. ..

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Chapter 16: Weather and Climate

Weather is considered to be the atmospheric conditions that are happening now or within a few days. On the other hand, climate represents the long term atmospheric patterns within which weather occurs. As the popular saying goes, "Climate is what you expect, and weather is what you get!"...

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Chapter 17: Insolation and Heat Budget of the Earth

Sun is the ultimate source of heat. And the differential heat received from sun by different regions on earth is the ultimate reason behind all climatic features. So understanding the patterns of distribution of temperature in different seasons is important for understanding various climatic features like wind systems, pressure systems, precipitation etc...

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Chapter 18: Humidity and Preciptation

The Hydrologic Cycle is one of the most important processes in the natural world, and is perhaps one that we all take for granted. All of the world’s water is subject to this process, which sees the water change forms, locations, and accessibility.In its most basic assessment, water changes between three different states in this cycle...

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Chapter 19: Winds and Atmospheric Circulation

Wind is the movement of air caused by the uneven heating of the Earth by the sun. It does not have much substance—you cannot see it or hold it—but you can feel its force. It can dry your clothes in summer and chill you to the bone in winter. It is strong enough to carry sailing ships across the ocean and rip huge trees from the ground...

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